Chapter 9: Encouraging Creative Enterprise in Russia
Linda Moss1 INTRODUCTION Since the collapse of the Soviet system, a demand-led, market economy has been developing in Russia in a very sporadic way. In some sectors the impact has been both profound and immediate (for example, the expansion of the extractive raw materials industry, which accounts for 80 per cent of Russia’s export income; the proliferation of multinational retail stores and the growth of private car ownership), but in other areas, change has been slow, diﬃcult and spasmodic. One area in particular which has witnessed slow and spasmodic change is the cultural sector, a sector which is still largely in the hands of large, traditional, long-established arts organizations supported by state funding, and controlled by an administration that has remained intact from the communist period, despite political change. Market forces have had an impact in the ﬁeld of popular mass culture (for example, publishing, cinema, broadcasting and other media), but the non-proﬁt sector, which constitutes a major part of the cultural economy in many Western countries, remains underdeveloped in Russia. For instance, non-proﬁt museums form 49 per cent of all museums in Austria, and 41 per cent of all museums in Holland; arts employment in Spain is 24 per cent in the non-proﬁt sector. In Eastern Europe, arts employment percentages vary from 3 percent to 5 per cent in non-proﬁt organizations while over 80 per cent of cultural employment is still in the public sector.2 Despite the support of international ﬁnance and expertise to...
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