New Horizons in Management series
Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy and Cary L. Cooper
Chapter 23: Emotion in Conflict and Negotiation: Introducing the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) Model
23 Emotion in conﬂict and negotiation: introducing the emotions as social information (EASI) model Gerben A. Van Kleef Introduction Conﬂict is omnipresent in organizational life. One of the most common and constructive ways of resolving conﬂict is through negotiation, which can be deﬁned as a discussion between two or more parties aimed at resolving a perceived divergence of interests (Pruitt & Carnevale, 1993). For example, members of a work team may negotiate the division of labor, employees may negotiate with their bosses about a salary raise, and CEOs may negotiate the terms of a merger. As we all know from personal experience, conﬂict and negotiation often bring about intense emotions, which may in turn strongly inﬂuence negotiation behavior and conﬂict development (Barry et al., 2004). But how do emotions inﬂuence conﬂict behavior? In this chapter I review research that is pertinent to this question, and I introduce a model that accounts for the interpersonal eﬀects of emotions in conﬂict and negotiation: the emotions as social information (EASI) model.1 When thinking about the role of emotions in conﬂict and negotiation, it is helpful to distinguish between intra- and interpersonal eﬀects (see Morris & Keltner, 2000; Van Kleef et al., 2004a). Intrapersonal eﬀects refer to the inﬂuence of an individual’s emotions on his or her own behavior. Among other things, positive moods and emotions have been shown to increase concession making (Baron, 1990), stimulate creative problem solving (Isen et...