3. 3.1 Types of spin-oﬀs INTRODUCTION The key to designing approaches to address the challenges in creating and developing spin-oﬀs is understanding their nature. Spin-oﬀs have been studied from diﬀerent conceptual perspectives. Some authors have taken the link with the parent institute as a point of departure and studied the institutional environment in which spin-oﬀs emerge and they study diﬀerences in the link between the spin-oﬀ and the parent-research organization. For example, in Chapter 4, we describe diﬀerent incubation models and the way in which they can impact the starting conﬁguration of a spinoﬀ. A second stream of researchers have used a resource-based lens to study spin-oﬀs. They make distinctions between those spin-oﬀs which have looked after external equity versus those that have not. Others have categorized spin-oﬀs based upon their technological resources and identify technology platform spin-oﬀs versus product or service spin-oﬀs. Still others in this literature stream make a distinction between those spin-oﬀs that are able to attract management experience in a founding team and those that are founded by individual researchers. A third stream of literature has distinguished between diﬀerent types of spin-oﬀs based upon their business and revenue model. These researchers have made a key distinction between those spin-oﬀs that are exit orientated and envisage a trade sale, and those that are revenue orientated and require time to break even. Based upon the insights generated by the diﬀerent...
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