Lessons and Policy Implications for the Lisbon Strategy
INFER Advances in Economic Research series
Chapter 9: Measuring Inventive Performance of the OECD Countries Using Triadic Patent Families: Reinventing the Lisbon Challenge
Marc Baudry and Béatrice Dumont 9.1 INTRODUCTION The European Union set itself ambitious goals in March 2000. Indeed, at the Lisbon European Council, European Member States set the Union the goal of becoming by 2010 ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion’. Two years later at the Barcelona European Council, which reviewed progress towards the Lisbon goals, they agreed that research and technological development (R&D) investment in the EU must be increased with the aim of approaching 3% of GDP by 2010, up from 1.9% in 2000.1 They also called for an increase of the level of business funding, which should rise from its current level of 56% to two-thirds of total R&D investment, a proportion already achieved in the US and in some European countries. The lack of performance of European countries in terms of innovation is regularly pointed out. As shown by Figure 9.1, since the mid-1990s, the gap between the European Union as a whole2 and the US both in terms of the inputs involved in the innovation process, that is, public and private R&D investments (at constant 1995 prices and purchasing power standard), and the output as measured by the number of triadic patent applications, has been widening steadily, with consequences for the long-term potential for innovation, growth and employment creation in Europe.3 This poor performance is supposedly due to the low growth of R...
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