The Emergence and Survival of High-Technology Ventures in Europe
Edited by Jan Ulijn, Dominique Drillon and Frank Lasch
Chapter 8: European Territorial Cooperation to Improve Competitiveness in the Union: The Case of EU-Funded Cooperation in Central and Southeastern Europe
Ulrich Graute INTRODUCTION The history of European integration over the past ﬁve decades has been a striving for two diﬀerent objectives: to foster economic competitiveness and to reduce regional discrepancies (Middlemas, 1995; Camagni, 2000). The economy may be competitive but if society and the environment suﬀer too much, the country will face major diﬃculties. The same happens when the economy is too weak. Therefore governments in the long run cannot focus solely on the economic competitiveness of their country; instead they need an integrated approach in order to govern eﬀectively. The same is true on a European level and here the key term used is ‘cohesion’ – economic, social and recently also territorial cohesion of the Union. Although the European Union (EU) is no state with one nation, one government and a common territory, it has developed an institutional setting which in many respects is similar to that of a state. European institutions such as the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission take decisions which aﬀect the lives of all EU citizens. Competitiveness of the economy and its enterprises matters, but at the same time it is in competition with other policy objectives of the Union and its members. This chapter features a newly emerging ﬁeld: European spatial development and European territorial cooperation. While the ﬁrst term applies to the informal policy of EU member states to better coordinate the territorial development of the Union, the second applies to the proposal of the...
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