Chapter 5: Citizenship, Globalisation and the Politics of the War on Terror
Maurice Mullard INTRODUCTION Expectations of citizenship are at present being shaped and deﬁned by the dual processes of globalisation and the war on terror. In the context of globalisation the nation state is perceived as passive, having to respond to oﬀshore pressures and larger planetary forces which are beyond its control. Increases in income inequality reﬂect global markets. There is little that governments can do to reduce income inequalities since any attempts to improve wages might result in higher unemployment. The war on terror is equally explained as being a global war. The emphasis on fear, of the continued presence of an ‘enemy within’ of terrorists seeking weapons of mass destruction and chemical weapons provides the legitimacy for surveillance and policing which in turn leads to a chilling eﬀect and quietism. This process narrows the spaces for dissent but also corrupts the democratic process as people stand in silence when the human rights of others are being violated in the name of security. Citizenship is not a static concept that can be captured within a deﬁnition. Expectations and hopes of citizenship are located in social, political, economic and cultural contexts. Civil, political and social rights that shape and deﬁne citizenship are equally not static. The boundaries between the state and individual civil liberties are contestable. It is with increased frequency that governments have made the exceptional case to redeﬁne privacy, freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. During the First World War, President...
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