Chapter 13: The Oppressive Discourse of Global Exclusion: The ‘War on Terror’ as a War on Difference and Freedom
13. The oppressive discourse of global exclusion: the ‘war on terror’ as a war on diﬀerence and freedom Andrew Robinson INTRODUCTION Globalisation has had ambiguous eﬀects in relation to social exclusion. One of the eﬀects of globalisation has been the reconstruction of nation states as transmission belts for neo-liberal policies and agendas, and the resultant reconstruction of national citizenship as conformity to a model of employability and productive usefulness (Sklair, 2000; Robinson, 2004; Moore, 2005). Another is the growth of hybridities on a global scale, such that discourses of homogeneity are rendered increasingly ﬁctional and are defensible only as mythical impositions (Bhabha, 1993; Appadurai, 2001; Gilroy, 2004). The practice of state repression must be viewed as operating at the intersection of these logics, as an attempt to impose neo-liberal homogeneity in a context of centrifugal forces – an enforcement of economic globalisation in the face of social and cultural heterogeneity. It is in this context that the rise of new forms of repression must be viewed, as a project for reconstructing conformist and majoritarian identities so as to articulate these to the neo-liberal project and construct a social support base for the imposition of state control. This duality in globalisation is constructing new kinds of social and class conﬂicts, with the concept of ‘citizenship’ one of several establishing a borderline between the in-group and its other. The conﬂict between included and excluded is superseding class conﬂicts among the included as the source of social antagonism...
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