Managing People, Livestock and Grasslands in Pastoral Areas
Administrative levels China’s administration essentially operates in a vertical hierarchy at the central, provincial, prefectural, county, township and village level. Even in pastoral areas, some prefectures and counties have been elevated to ‘city’ status depending on criteria such as economic output and structure and levels of urbanization and the status confers them with different powers, roles and responsibilities. Many administrative regions in pastoral areas with large minority populations also have special autonomous powers and titles that reﬂect this status. Thus there is the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (provincial level), the Yili Autonomous Khazak State (prefecture level) and the Hefeng Autonomous Mongolian County (county level). Furthermore the administrative levels have ethnic derived titles such as in the case of Inner Mongolia where leagues, banners, sumus and gacas substitute for the Han Chinese titles of prefecture, counties, townships and villages. To facilitate comparison across the different administrative titles used in the pastoral region, this book employs the more widely understood Han Chinese titles for the various administrative levels. Place names Localities in China are also referred to by various names especially in minority areas where the local or ethnic name differs from the Han Chinese name. For instance, Uxin Banner in Inner Mongolia is most widely referred to as Wushen County while most ofﬁcials in Hobokosar County in Xinjiang refer to the county under its Chinese name of Hefeng. Similarly Xilin Gol League is more well known as Xilinguole Prefecture. As a general rule this book uses the Han Chinese...