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Edited by Andreas Georg Scherer and Guido Palazzo
Chapter 11: Emerging Patterns of Global Governance: The New Interplay between the State, Business and Civil Society
Klaus Dieter Wolf Introduction According to the traditional distinction between domestic and international politics, governing within the state was conceived as a hierarchical ‘command and control’ process. Only governments were authorized to take collectively binding decisions. In contrast, the political space beyond the state lacked the central political authority of a world government and was consequently described either as an anarchical system (Waltz 1977) governed by self-help and power politics, or as a society of states (Bull 1977) governed by horizontal arrangements, such as treaty-based relationships which regulated the peaceful coexistence between nation-states. In both spheres, the national and the international, governing functions were reserved to public actors, that is to national governments or the intergovernmental institutions created by them. The main diﬀerence existed in the prevalence of a one-way or an interactive model of governing. This traditional domestic–international distinction has been completely overthrown by the growing governance demands. In the interdependent world of today, collective action problems cover an ever-increasing number of issue areas other than national security, such as environmental matters, social and economic human rights. These problems straddle the existing territorial boundaries of political units and call for the extension of public policy beyond the state. Economic globalization creates challenges for political steering which exceed the capabilities of any single state. It has produced a growing need (and claim) to make use of the problem-solving potential of non-state actors in order to master these challenges more eﬀectively. As a consequence, these new demands have...
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