A Research Companion
Edited by Mustafa F. Özbilgin and Ayala Malach-Pines
Mustafa F. Özbilgin and Ayala Malach-Pines The choice of a career is a complex and multifaceted process that includes all the spheres of a person’s life (Hall, 1996). For one hundred years attempts have been made to classify the factors that inﬂuence this process. Most of these attempts include such factors as aptitudes, interests, resources, limitations, requirements and opportunities. Parsons (1909/1989, p. 5), for example, stated that ‘in the wise choice of a vocation there are three broad factors: 1. A clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, resources, limitations and their causes. 2. Knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensations, opportunities and prospects in diﬀerent lines of work. 3. True reasoning on the relations of these groups of facts’. Parsons’s work served as the cornerstone in the development of modern counseling theories that center on the person–environment ﬁt (e.g. Edwards et al., 1998; Kristof, 1996; Swanson, 1996). In the 1950s, Ginzberg (1951) classiﬁed the factors that inﬂuence career choices into: self, reality and key people, while Super (1953, 1957) classiﬁed them into: (1) Role factors – the self and the role; (2) Personality factors – intelligence, special abilities, preferences, values, approaches to work, ‘personality’ and general adaptability, and (3) Situational factors – social and economic status of the parents, religious background, home atmosphere, parents’ approach, the general economic situation, a state of war or peace, and training opportunities. It is common today to view vocational choice as a process,...