A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 14: The London Experience
1 Georgina Santos 14.1 BACKGROUND TO THE LONDON CONGESTION CHARGING SCHEME On 17 February 2003 the London Congestion Charging Scheme (LCCS) was implemented, after a number of public consultation exercises and with a fair amount of background research supporting its design. The legislation needed had been in place since 1999. The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (Acts of Parliament, 1999) had created an authority for Greater London, which consisted of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly; and had, at the same time, given the Mayor powers to implement road user charging and/or workplace parking levies. Two major research studies on congestion charging in London had also been carried out. In July 1995, the Government Oﬃce for London published the results of the London Congestion Charging Research Programme (MVA Consultancy, 1995), which examined a range of technical options. The Review of Charging Options for London (ROCOL) Working Group had been set up in August 1998 with the aim of providing an assessment of options for congestion charging in London. They also produced a report, overseen by the Government Oﬃce for London, and published in March 2000 (ROCOL, 2000), which reviewed the available options for charging, conducted and discussed public attitude surveys, and assessed the impact of illustrative charging schemes. The introduction of congestion charging was a central part of Mayor Ken Livingstone’s manifesto for election in May 2000. After being elected, Livingstone decided to take forward the ROCOL proposals for a London congestion charging scheme in Central...
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