Politics, Foreign Policy and Regional Cooperation
Edited by Paul G. Harris
Chapter 7: A New Climate for Spain: Accommodating Environmental Foreign Policy in a Federal State
* J David Tàbara INTRODUCTION Global climate change (GCC) has come to the forefront of international environmental policy discussions. Within the ﬁeld of international relations, GCC is triggering a large amount of research aimed at understanding the factors that shape related foreign policy. In addition to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Nations (UN) Framework on Climate Change (FCCC) reports and monitoring system, extensive and valuable reviews are now available describing the different arenas and actors, as well as explaining the growing climate regime architecture and the opportunities and pitfalls of current negotiations and mechanisms.1 However, this chapter is not aimed at reviewing the existing literature in this matter. Rather, it will concentrate on describing and analyzing the general and current situation of GCC politics in Spain, particularly with regard to the domestic and foreign causes and effects of its implementation of the Kyoto protocol and the European Climate Change Programmes (ECCP) (see EC 2001)2. In order to understand the following lines it is important to underline that Spain is now a highly decentralized and federally organized state composed by 17 Autonomous Communities (ACs), some of them (e.g., Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia) with very distinct cultural traditions and political arrangements. These distinctions explain many of the different domestic responses and organizational policy arrangements to environmental issues, including climate change, in Spain. This chapter ﬁrst describes Spain’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and related policies. It then reviews theories of environmental foreign policy (EFP)...
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