Politics, Foreign Policy and Regional Cooperation
Edited by Paul G. Harris
Chapter 12: Meeting Kyoto Commitments: EU Influence on Norway and Germany
Guri Bang, Jonas Vevatne and Michelle Twena INTRODUCTION This chapter explores how the environmental policies of the European Union (EU) inﬂuence domestic climate policy in individual European countries. Environmental policy has been part of joint EU policy for years, and now a common policy on global climate change (GCC) is developing. At the same time, in 2004 the EU expanded its membership from 15 to 25 states. Foreign and environmental policies are increasingly co-ordinated for a broad range of European countries. The question is whether the inﬂuence of the EU on national policies is growing as a result of increasing integration. We look speciﬁcally at two countries: Germany, an EU member state; and Norway, a non-member.1 Both of these countries have expressed strong prior national preferences for policy choice. Thus the question is to what extent the policy decisions of the EU have been able to affect the ultimate choice of policy instruments in these countries. To address this question empirically, we focus on the policy formulation of a particularly relevant and recently debated GCC policy issue, namely, emissions trading (ET). At the Kyoto Conference in 1997, parties to the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) acknowledged that trading in emissions allowances was a cost-effective instrument to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The speciﬁc details of how the instrument could be implemented were not decided at the time, but were left to subsequent international GCC negotiations. It was not until the seventh...
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