Edited by Gordon E. Shockley, Peter M. Frank and Roger R. Stough
Chapter 6: Indigenous Communities, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Development in the New Economy
Robert B. Anderson, Scott W. MacAulay, Bob Kayseas and Kevin G. Hindle INTRODUCTION Around the world Indigenous Peoples are struggling to rebuild their ‘nations’ and improve the socioeconomic circumstances of their people. Depending on the ﬁgures used this constitutes an emerging market of 500 million people (Peredo et al., 2004; Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights Project, 2003). Participation in the global economy through entrepreneurship and business development is widely accepted as the key to success by most Indigenous People. However, importantly most Indigenous groups want this participation to be ‘on their own terms’ – terms in which traditional lands, history, culture and values play an important role (Anderson, 2006; Dana et al., 2005; Peredo et al., 2004, Hindle and Lansdowne, 2005; Galbraith et al., 2006). What is emerging is a version of non-market entrepreneurship consistent with the deﬁnition used by the editors of this work, which is that ‘ “non-market entrepreneurship” consists of all forms of entrepreneurship not being undertaken solely for purposes of proﬁt maximization or commercialization, which encompasses entrepreneurial activities such as social enterprise and entrepreneurship, public sector entrepreneurship, policy entrepreneurship, nonproﬁt entrepreneurship, and philanthropic enterprise, among many others’. Perhaps Indigenous entrepreneurship, or even a more general category called community entrepreneurship, could be added to the ‘other’ categories in this list. In the next section, we provide a description of the development aspirations and activities of other Indigenous People and a description of the approach to economic development that is emerging among them, using Canada as a particular...
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