The CRC Series on Competition, Regulation and Development
Edited by Paul Cook and Sarah Mosedale
INTRODUCTION Which comes ﬁrst – success in international trade or competitiveness in technology? Does innovation in technology help a country’s exports become more competitive in international trade? Or does success in international markets provide the incentive for technological advance? And how does domestic competition aﬀect a country’s performance in both technology and international trade? These are the questions addressed in this chapter. Does technological advance drive international trade or is it the other way round? In recent years much research on the OECD countries certainly suggests that for them, success in trade is strongly inﬂuenced by their technological competitiveness (Archibugi and Pianta, 1994; Laursen, 2000). And indeed recent research on the East Asian economies indicates that this was also the case in Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore (Uchida and Cook, 2005a). But the relationship between trade and technology is likely to be more complex than this since, for instance, being export-orientated itself generates incentives for technological advance. Therefore, we might expect a two-way relationship between trade and technology (Lall, 1992). And in fact our results show that the situation in ‘catching up’ economies in general is not the same as in OECD countries. BEFRIENDING THE MARKET OR STIMULATING IT? How does a country come to specialize in a particular export, that is, become competitive in a particular industrial sector? Evidence suggests that this is the result of a learning process within the country and sector involved, which has increased the necessary technological capabilities, however limited (Lall, 2000). Opinion...
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