Chapter 9: Comparative Perspectives of the Challenges and Prospects of Civil Service Reforms in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda
John-Mary Kauzya 9.1 INTRODUCTION There are remarkable similarities among the civil services of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania largely owing to the fact that prior to the 1960s the three countries were under the rule of the United Kingdom (UK). ‘The United Republic of Tanzania was formed out of the union of two sovereign states namely Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Tanganyika became a sovereign state on 9 December 1961 and became a Republic the following year. Zanzibar became independent on 10 December 1963 and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar was established after the revolution of 12 January 1964. The two sovereign republics formed the United Republic of Tanzania on 26 April 1964. However, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania is a unitary republic consisting of the Union Government and the Zanzibar Revolutionary Government’ (Official Government Website of Tanzania http://www.tanzania.go.tz). Uganda and Kenya achieved independence from the UK on 9 October 1962 and on 12 December 1963 respectively. After Independence, the three countries formed the East African Community (EAC) which provided some common services including railways and airline services. The EAC, however, did not survive the political and ideological differences which emerged between the immediate postindependence political leaders of the three countries in the 1960 and 1970s. The capitalist in Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, the Socialist in Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, and the ideologically undefined brutal military tyrant in Idi Amin Dada of Uganda were not compatible. Consequently, the EAC collapsed in 1977 after slightly more than one decade in...
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