As things are . . . mankind are by no means agreed about the things to be taught . . . and again about the means there is no agreement. Aristotle INTRODUCTION Curriculum seems to have had a long past but a short history. It has been pondered in the minds of philosophers and teachers over the centuries yet only received deﬁnition in the nineteenth century, according to The Oxford English Dictionary. And as with most ﬁelds of endeavour, deﬁnitions reﬂect diﬀering perspectives: ● ● ‘The totality of experience of each learner under the inﬂuence of the educational institution’ (Scheﬀer 1960). ‘Planned actions for instruction’ (McDonald in Foshay 1970). The concept of curriculum and the diﬃculty in narrowing it down to one singular concept is reﬂected in the work of Tanner and Tanner (1980) where they reﬂect the changes in perception over the twentieth century. They discuss curriculum as the ‘cumulative tradition of organised knowledge’, curriculum as ‘modes of thought’, curriculum as ‘race experience’, curriculum as ‘experience’, and curriculum as ‘a technological system of production’. These discourses have led to a rich and full debate with emerging views built upon the thoughts and experiences of those that have gone before leading to a clearer sense of what it all means as we embark upon this millennium. CURRICULUM: SOME PERSPECTIVES Curriculum design is based on particular attitudes, values and beliefs. As a result, curriculum reﬂects underlying assumptions about the appropriate purposes and practices of education. Freedman (1998) tells us...
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