Managerial and Organizational Challenges
New Horizons in Management series
Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper
Terrorism, security and the management of organizations: impact, preparation and response Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper1 On September 11, 2001, at 8:46 a.m., terrorists ﬂew an American Airlines Boeing 767 passenger plane into Tower 1 of the World Trade Center (WTC). The plane hit the north side of the building between the 94th and 98th ﬂoors. The plane was traveling at 470 mph and carried 10,000 gallons of fuel. At 9:03 a.m., a second plane ﬂown by terrorists, a United Airlines Boeing 767, crashed into the south side of Tower 2 of the WTC between the 78th and 84th ﬂoors. This plane was traveling at 590 mph and also carried 10,000 gallons of fuel. The collapse of Tower 2 occurred 57 minutes after impact, followed by the collapse of Tower 1, 102 minutes following impact (Gershon et al. 2007). Almost 2800 lives were lost and this was the worst terrorist attack in US history; the Pearl Harbor death toll was 2403. Although terrorist attacks had occurred previously in the US and in many other countries, the events of 9/11 have changed many parts of the world forever. The events of 9/11 were unique. The number of deaths was unprecedented, and include those of 343 ﬁreﬁghters who lost their lives responding to the attacks. The terrorists did not need weapons of mass destruction to cause mass casualties and more than $90 billion in losses. The airline, insurance and tourism industries were particularly hard hit....