Implications for the United States
Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang-Hee Christine Bae
Chapter 7: Design Tools for Road Pricing Cordons
Anthony D. May, S.P. Shepherd, A. Sumalee and A. Koh 1 INTRODUCTION In Europe and Asia, most proposals for urban road pricing involve the use of cordon or area charging, in which one or more boundaries are drawn, with charges to cross the boundary (using cordon schemes as in Singapore and Stockholm) or to drive within it (using area schemes as in London). Despite over 40 years of research into such schemes, there is little technical advice on where best to place such boundaries. Most designs are based on a mix of professional and political judgement, with little or no assessment of whether alternative locations would be more eﬀective. In practice, the performance of any road pricing cordon or boundary will be aﬀected by the combined eﬀects of a reduction in traﬃc entering the area and an increase in traﬃc bypassing it. While congestion will be reduced within the area, it might well be aggravated outside it. Since these conﬂicting impacts will depend on both the topology of the road network and the pattern of demand for its use, it is diﬃcult to oﬀer general advice on cordon location. All that is known is that the beneﬁts of road pricing, usually measured in terms of welfare economic impacts, are critically dependent on the choice of cordon (May et al., 2002). Section 2 brieﬂy reviews this evidence and our understanding of the approaches which professionals adopt to cordon design. We then...
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