Table of Contents

Environmental Governance and Decentralisation

Environmental Governance and Decentralisation

New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

Edited by Albert Breton, Giorgio Brosio, Silvana Dalmazzone and Giovanna Garrone

This book examines how different countries define and address environmental issues, specifically in relation to intergovernmental relations: the creation of institutions, the assignment of powers, and the success of alternative solutions. It also investigates whether a systemic view of the environment has influenced the policy-making process. The broad perspective adopted includes a detailed analysis of seventeen countries in six continents by scholars from a range of disciplines – economics, political science, environmental science and law – thus producing novel material that moves away from the conventional treatment of decentralisation and the environment in economic literature.

Chapter 10: The Political Economy of Environmental Governance in the United States

Jason F. Shogren

Subjects: economics and finance, environmental economics, public sector economics, environment, environmental economics, environmental governance and regulation

Extract

Jason F. Shogren 1. INTRODUCTION In 1960 at the request of the United States Congress, the Surgeon General – the chief federal health advisor – issued a report on national environmental health. The reported stated ‘[i]t is not being overdramatic to suggest that threats from our environment, actual or potential, cannot only generate wholly undesirable effects on the health and well-being of isolated individuals, but under certain circumstances could affect large segments of our population and conceivably threaten the very existence of our Nation’ (see Neimark and Mott, 1999, p. 184). Over the next decade, numerous other environmental warning cries were heard throughout the US, including Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and G. Hardin’s Tragedy of the Commons. Reflecting the urgency of a national crisis, President Richard Nixon declared in his 1970 State of the Union message that ‘[r]estoring nature to its natural state is a cause beyond party and beyond factions. It has become a common cause for all the people of America.’ Together Congress and President Nixon enacted a set of far-reaching federal laws and statutes aimed at protecting the environment. Starting with the federalization of environmental protection with the National Environmental Protection Act of 1969, people now approach environmental protection totally differently in decision making than they did three decades ago (see Percival et al., 1992). Today this 1960s and 1970s sense of emergency has been replaced with the sentiment that environmental protection is an enduring US national value. The public commitment to environmental...

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