Fred O. Walumbwa and George O. Ndege INTRODUCTION Africa is the world’s richest continent in terms of natural resources. It has 50 per cent of the world’s gold, most of the world’s diamonds and chromium, 90 per cent of the cobalt, 40 per cent of the world’s potential hydroelectric power, millions of acres of untilled farmland, as well as other natural resources. Since the 1960s, more than $400 billion in Western aid and credits have been pumped into Africa and yet many of its problems seem to be as pervasive as in the past. Despite its natural wealth and massive Western aid and credit, Africa is still home to the world’s most impoverished people. A variety of reasons have been given for this state of affairs in Africa, including the legacy of colonialism, neo-colonialism, cultural differences, bio-geographic diversity and many others. Yes, there is no question that colonialism, for example, had a big impact on some of the nagging problems confronting Africa. Yet, in the post-colonial era most of Africa has infrastructures such as roads, railways, bridges, schools, universities, hospitals, and even the civil service machinery that are in worse shape today than they were over 40 years ago. While all of the above factors significantly contribute to Africa’s problems, many have argued that there has been a pervasive failure of leadership that keeps the African continent from advancing beyond its current state. For decades, African leaders have focused on blaming external factors like colonial legacies, lingering effects of the...
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