Chapter 1: Pre-empting NIS Introductions: Targeting Policy
Christopher Costello, Chad Lawley and Carol McAusland Introduction Invasives are non-indigenous species (NIS) that out-compete native species for resources and become pests in a host region. Because they are excellent competitors, invasives impose costs on their hosts by displacing native species (facilitating species loss) and heightening control costs. Costs from NIS can be considerable:1 the USA spends roughly $1.5 billion to $2.3 billion annually on herbicides to combat non-native crop weeds (OTA, 1993) and suﬀers $1 billion a year in fouling from zebra mussels alone (Pimentel et al., 2005). Worldwide, competition from exotic species is the second leading cause of species loss; invasives are implicated in the decline of 400 of the 958 species listed as endangered in the USA (Wilcove et al., 1998). Pimentel et al. (2005) estimate that the annual cost of dealing with harmful NIS is almost $120 billion. Trade in goods and services plays a central role in many NIS Introductions. The purpose of this chapter is to present a framework for tailoring trade (and other preemptive policies) to NIS characteristics. We ﬁnd that most NIS problems can be classiﬁed, for policy response purposes, into a handful of categories, each with a speciﬁed policy response. For example, sometimes the traded product is the source of the introduction, as with imports of horticultural stock.2 In other cases NIS introductions are purely accidental, as when individuals hitchhike on imported goods, tourists, or packing materials. Asian Tiger mosquitoes probably entered the USA in the wells...
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