Table of Contents

Handbook on Trade and the Environment

Handbook on Trade and the Environment

Elgar original reference

Edited by Kevin P. Gallagher

In this comprehensive reference work, Kevin Gallagher has compiled a fresh and broad-ranging collection of expert voices commenting on the interdisciplinary field of trade and the environment. For over two decades policymakers and scholars have been struggling to understand the relationship between international trade in a globalizing world and its effects on the natural environment. The authors in this Handbook provide the tools to do just that.

Chapter 1: Pre-empting NIS Introductions: Targeting Policy

Christopher Costello, Chad Lawley and Carol McAusland

Subjects: economics and finance, environmental economics, international economics, environment, environmental economics, environmental law, environmental politics and policy, law - academic, environmental law, international economic law, trade law, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy, european politics and policy, international politics

Extract

Christopher Costello, Chad Lawley and Carol McAusland Introduction Invasives are non-indigenous species (NIS) that out-compete native species for resources and become pests in a host region. Because they are excellent competitors, invasives impose costs on their hosts by displacing native species (facilitating species loss) and heightening control costs. Costs from NIS can be considerable:1 the USA spends roughly $1.5 billion to $2.3 billion annually on herbicides to combat non-native crop weeds (OTA, 1993) and suffers $1 billion a year in fouling from zebra mussels alone (Pimentel et al., 2005). Worldwide, competition from exotic species is the second leading cause of species loss; invasives are implicated in the decline of 400 of the 958 species listed as endangered in the USA (Wilcove et al., 1998). Pimentel et al. (2005) estimate that the annual cost of dealing with harmful NIS is almost $120 billion. Trade in goods and services plays a central role in many NIS Introductions. The purpose of this chapter is to present a framework for tailoring trade (and other preemptive policies) to NIS characteristics. We find that most NIS problems can be classified, for policy response purposes, into a handful of categories, each with a specified policy response. For example, sometimes the traded product is the source of the introduction, as with imports of horticultural stock.2 In other cases NIS introductions are purely accidental, as when individuals hitchhike on imported goods, tourists, or packing materials. Asian Tiger mosquitoes probably entered the USA in the wells...

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