James J. Corbett and James J. Winebrake The freight transportation system is the network of specialized vessels, the ports they visit, and transportation infrastructure from factories to terminals to distribution centers to markets (MARAD, 1999). Within such a deﬁnition, it is nearly impossible to consider ocean shipping separately from the goods movement context. On a worldwide basis, nearly 50 000 oceangoing vessels move cargo more than 33 billion tonne-km annually. In the European Union, marine transportation moves more than 70 percent (by volume) of all cargo traded with the rest of the world; in the USA, more than 95 percent of imports and exports are carried by ships (MARAD, 2000). This work is accomplished by ships using 2 to 4 percent of the world’s fossil fuels (Corbett, 2004). These inbound and outbound freight ﬂows through national ports are connected to truck and train movement of goods through a transportation network. In fact, ocean shipping can be considered to be a ‘trip-generator’ for intermodal cargoes in global trade, blending with domestic freight movements on nations’ roads and rails. This intermodal context is important when considering impacts of ocean shipping, particularly where modal tradeoﬀs in energy intensity and emissions diﬀer. This chapter discusses the role of ocean shipping within the context of international goods transportation, with speciﬁc attention paid to the energy and environmental impacts of such shipping. Multimodal freight context International maritime shipping is a critical element in the global freight transportation system that includes ocean and...
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