Chapter 15: The Politics of Trade and Environment in the European Union
Henrik Selin and Stacy D. VanDeveer Introduction What is today the European Union (EU) began with the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 (Richardson, 2006). The signing of the Treaties of Rome in 1957, entering into force in 1958, built on this eﬀort and created the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community, respectively. Following a period of slower regional policy developments in the 1960s and 1970s, intensiﬁed European political and economic integration with the adoption of several treaties amending the Treaties of Rome started in the mid-1980s. The Single European Act – signed in 1986 and entering into force in 1987 – expanded the Community’s legal competence on environmental issues and set the goal of creating a single internal market by removing remaining physical, ﬁscal and technical barriers to trade among member states. The Treaty on European Union – often referred to as the Maastricht Treaty after the Dutch city where it was adopted – entered into force in 1993 and created the EU. The Maastricht Treaty developed the roles and legal competences of the main EU organizations, and expanded the process of European integration into new political issue areas. The Treaty of Amsterdam, which was signed in 1997 and entered into force in 1999, facilitated further membership enlargement and deepening integration, including on environmental policy issues. The Treaty of Nice was adopted in December 2000 and entered into force in 2003. This treaty paved the way for a series of organizational reforms to adapt...
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