European Research in Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Alain Fayolle and Paula Kyrö
Chapter 1: Introduction: Broadening the Scope and Dynamics of Entrepreneurship Research in Europe
Paula Kyrö and Alain Fayolle This book continues the discourse on the dynamics of entrepreneurship research set in motion in the ﬁrst book in this series, European Research in Entrepreneurship (Fayolle et al., 2005). At that time our aim was to identify and elaborate the emergence of a European position in the entrepreneurship debate and to see what kind of a proﬁle the European research might have. The positive response to that book indicated that European research does indeed have its speciﬁcs, which merit further research. In our introduction, ‘The entrepreneurship debate in Europe: a matter of history and culture’, we anticipated that the dialogue between Europe and, for example, Asia will intensify in the future, challenging European research and eﬀorts to enhance its entrepreneurial and innovative culture. This challenge is a reality today. For example the Chinese government has now taken a strategic decision to develop an innovation-based country by 2020 by integrating entrepreneurship into its education, developmental activities and research (Wang Xingsun, 2007). There is also a lot to do to catch up with the USA in this respect. Only the new EU member states, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland score better than the USA in the desirability of self-employment (European Commission, 2007). Inside Europe the assessment of the Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) Index signals that the countries ranked high in innovativeness still have entrepreneurial activity below the European average, for example France, Finland and Estonia. These striking diﬀerences and contradictions in entrepreneurial activities, readiness...