European Research in Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Alain Fayolle and Paula Kyrö
Chapter 12: The Impact of Global Value Chains on Andalusian Tourism SMEs
Pilar Tejada and Francisco Liñán INTRODUCTION The present process of globalization stresses the need to continuously seek international competitiveness. Thus, ﬁrm strategies have been rapidly evolving over the last few years. Technological advances have exerted a critical inﬂuence on this process, modifying the traditional consideration of competitive advantage (López Domínguez, 2005). This has led to global strategic designs, as is reﬂected in the conﬁguration of global tourism value chains (GTVCs). Within the tourism sector, the following elements imply an increasingly competitive environment: globalization of tourism markets, greater consumer sovereignty, changing ﬁrm strategies, introduction of new technologies in the tourism industry, and the transformation of marketing channels (Go and Pine, 1995). Tourism ﬁrms are forced to restructure thoroughly to adapt to this new environment. Main strategies in this sense are ﬁrm mergers, introduction of new agents in the market, new management models, and internationalization (Ioannides and Debbage, 1997; Bywater, 1998). These changes are forcing all tourism actors to adapt to the globalization process. Whether small ﬁrms and entrepreneurs in this sector win or lose from this process depends on their integration into the global tourism value chain (GTVC). Local suppliers in tourism destinations such as Andalusia need to recognize the relevance of this transformation and actively join GTVCs. Therefore, our ﬁrst main objective in this chapter will be to understand the conﬁguration of the global value chain in the tourism sector. The relationships established among the diﬀerent participating agents will be studied. As...
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