Systemic Linkages Between Knowledge and the Market
New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Blandine Laperche, Dimitri Uzunidis and G. N. von Tunzelmann
Introduction: Knowledge, Innovation Systems and the Role of Power
Blandine Laperche, Dimitri Uzunidis and Nick von Tunzelmann Knowledge and innovation are the two main resources of contemporary capitalism. To study and understand these roles, it is ﬁrst helpful to draw on the theory of systems. Technological innovation cannot be understood when isolated from its context. Putting innovation in perspective requires a holistic and systemic approach: new technologies, new products, but also new markets, new organization and new management practices. The authors in this volume stress the importance of cognitive and social linkages, as well as the role of ‘communities of practice’ in the assessment and analysis of innovation within the enterprise, local and national economies and at the international level. The approach of scholars as well as practitioners should be directed toward the economic and social impacts of innovation activities. The authors here perform a series of studies at diﬀerent levels (research labs, enterprises and networks) and throughout systems of innovation and innovative milieux based upon practical cases, to present emerging ideas from established theoretical developments of economists, historians and geographers. Indeed, the genesis of knowledge and its diﬀusion (information) depends upon the density of the relationships among individuals and organizations at both micro-economic and macro-economic levels. What may be concluded from the analysis is that some speciﬁc actors (the state, enterprises) determine separately but also jointly, the process of diﬀusion, coordination and standardization of knowledge and technologies. Institutional and entrepreneurial networks play a fundamental role (vis-àvis the employee or the entrepreneur) in the...