Research Handbooks in International Law series
Edited by James A.R. Nafziger and Stephen F. Ross
‘Citius, Altius, Fortius’ – faster, higher, stronger. To a great extent, this famous motto of the Olympic Movement expresses the aspirations that animate international sports law as well. For example, the ad hoc division of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) seeks to ensure faster resolution of disputes in the heated course of competition. Similarly, the CAS mediation facility provides a faster track for resolving out-of-competition disputes. CAS also aims for higher standards of dispute resolution and a higher level to review decisions of sports bodies bearing on such vital issues as the eligibility of athletes. As to the aspiration of ‘fortius’, the World Anti-Doping Code and the UNESCO Anti-Doping Convention provide a stronger regime for ensuring a more level playing ﬁeld free of drugs and other performance-enhancing abuse. As well, new rules of video surveillance and scoring established by international sports federations are directed toward stronger measures of trust in ﬁeld-of-play decisions and the outcome of competition. Socio-economic issues loom large in the international sports arena. ‘This is how I ﬁght’, explained a women’s soccer pioneer in Afghanistan, concisely referring to both gender equality and geopolitics. Whatever may be the role of sports as an instrument of global order, social issues such as discrimination and the protection of youth have been fundamental, as has the core principle of fairness. Economic issues driven by globalization have also swept the sports arena. Transnational commercial issues bespeak the pervasive inﬂuence of the media and corporate sponsorship; the emergence of image, intellectual...