Appendix A: Questions Asked in the World Values Survey
As a global survey, the World Values Survey (WVS) is useful for comparatively analysing attitudes to a range of social concerns across countries. Questions relating to respondents’ attitude to the environment were singled out for examination as they are of direct relevance to the questions asked in Chapter 5. The WVS is also useful because it covers all the countries examined, as well as the time frame for analysis. However, like any global survey conducted over time there are data gaps, and variations in questions asked and responses to them which cause problems. There is no such thing as the perfect survey or dataset, so one must acknowledge and work within the limitations of what is available. Reponses to the second (1990–1993), third (1995–1997) and fourth (1999–2000) WVS waves were analysed. All questions on the environment asked in the WVS that relate to the three concerns here (that is, concern for the environment; willingness to take direct action in markets; and willingness to take non-market action) are analysed in Chapter 5. However, not all the questions were asked in all the waves of the WVS. German respondents were not asked certain questions in Wave 4 that were asked of US and Japanese respondents. In Wave 4, one of the questions was asked in a different format to Waves 3 and 4. The waves in which they were asked, and where applicable the countries that were covered, are shown in Table A.1. In addition, two categories of responses...
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