Chapter 1: Peace Issues in the ‘Post-9/11’ World
Yoshikazu Sakamoto THE MEANING OF ‘9/11’ The title of my chapter originally suggested by Professor Shin Chiba was ‘The nature of peace and war after September 11.’ As you can see, I put quotes around ‘Post-9/11,’ because I am not convinced that 9/11 is a watershed in contemporary history as represented by the cliché that ‘9/11 has changed the world.’ Of course, the destruction of the World Trade Center, which killed approximately 3000 people was a horrible incident that continued to frighten me every time I saw the pictures on television. It was truly what we should call a humanitarian disaster. Yet, I do not think 9/11 changed the world. What it changed is the way the Americans see the world. It was a change in the American perception of the world, not a change of the realities of the world. I say this for two reasons. First, there was a series of terrorist acts against the United States prior to September 11, 2001: ● ● ● ● ● ● In 1983, the Marine Barracks in Beirut were attacked by suicide bombers who killed 241 American servicemen. In 1984, the US Embassy annex in Lebanon was bombed and 22 people, including Americans, died. In 1986, the bombing of a Berlin discotheque killed two US servicemen and injured 230 people, including more than 50 American servicemen. In 1988, a Pan Am ﬂight, traveling from London to New York, was destroyed by a bomb near Lockerbie, Scotland, and 259 passengers were killed. In 1993, the ﬁrst bombing...
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