Chapter 3: Searching for Peace in a World of Terrorism and State Terrorism
Johan Galtung I INTRODUCTION Let me make one thing clear from the beginning. My position on peace and war, peace theory and practice, is less based on paciﬁsm as a moral position than on paciﬁsm as a politics of peace and war. This is spelt out in the Introduction of my book, Peace By Peaceful Means (1996), which discusses concrete applications of political/military/economic/cultural power as soft politics for the 21st century. An eightfold path is indicated, using the four forms of power both for negative and for positive peace. The position is basically pragmatic: violence, with all its bloodshed is counterproductive or at best non-productive, like leeches with their hosts. Lately I have been, within the framework of TRANSCEND (Peace and Development Network), very concerned with conﬂict transformation (Galtung, 2004) as the way to prevent avoidable violence and suﬀering— somewhat similar to primary and secondary prophylaxis as the way to prevent illness—but also, particularly as positive peace with its focus on joint projects, as a way for humankind to move forward; just like for positive health. No doubt this is a valuable approach. My preferred formulation, however, is to look at conﬂict transformation in Buddhist terms: that is, reduce dukkha (suﬀering) and increase sukha (fulﬁllment). This is applicable to all, including our individual selves. I see security theory and practice as an approach that is focused on ourselves, that is, as an egoistic position based on a ‘strength’ that generates the same...
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