Chapter 4: Diaspora, Empire, Resistance: Peace and the Subaltern as Rupture(s) and Repetition(s)
1 Lester Edwin J. Ruiz There are two human inventions which may be considered more diﬃcult than others—the art of government, and the art of education, and people still contend as to their meaning. (Kant  1900, p. 12) A rational exposition becomes an assertion of authority if no trace remains of the fumbling approaches that made it possible . . . The political world shuns objective elucidation of its practices as an academic exercise, while the academic world rejects as ‘political’ any testing of its statements against the real. (Debray, 1983) Every declared rupture is an undeclared repetition. (Spivak, 1999, p. 333) I THE FIRST RUPTURE AND REPETITION: LOCATION AND CRITIQUE The intellectual production, reproduction, and representation in which I am engaged, as much as it may desire the sublime, is still the discourse of what one might call a privileged male ﬂâneur, if not bricoleur, however personally innocent, even if he aspires towards a Gramscian ‘organic intellectual.’ Because all intellectual work is a passage through privilege, it is fraught with both dangers and possibilities: dangers because we are a species marked, not only by reason, or by freedom, but also by error; possibilities because the history of thought, read as a critical philosophy appreciative of ‘fallibility,’ becomes a ‘history of trials, an open-ended history of multiple visions and revisions, some more enduring than others’ (Faubion, 1998, p. xxxii). It was Michel Foucault who pointed out that: If the history of the sciences is discontinuous—that is, if it...
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