Chapter 1: Universities in the Globalizing World
INTRODUCTION Teichler (2007) notes that during the nineteenth century distinctive national models of higher education emerged. The British approach, centred on Oxford and Cambridge, emphasized teaching and the closeness of the relationship between tutors and students in order to develop well-rounded personalities. Collegiality and autonomy from the state were its key characteristics, involving non-hierarchical, cooperative decisionmaking and high levels of academic self-determination. Nonetheless, subsequently into the later decades of the twentieth century, levels of public funding generally were as high as in the more state-directed European systems, although, until more recently, block grant funding by government to universities reinforced the longstanding sense of institutional autonomy. In France, however, universities and their curricula have been strongly coordinated bureaucratically by the legal-rational authority of the state, reinforced by high institutional decentralization, and where separate professional institutions outside the universities (ecoles, research organizations) attracted higher prestige. The internationally influential German system became characterized by the integration of teaching and research, and the notion that academic freedom and institutional independence were best guaranteed by the state and by a strong professoriate. The US model, especially as it strengthened as a perceived global leader throughout the twentieth century, combined the British approach at undergraduate level with the German model of a key research function at the graduate level. However, the central or federal state in the USA plays a much more restricted funding and planning role than in many other countries, with, rather, local states and forms of self-accreditation processes providing key regulatory processes. Three...
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