Chapter 4: Comparing Summitry, Financial and Trade Regionalisms in East Asia: From the Japanese Perspective
4. Comparing summitry, ﬁnancial and trade regionalisms in East Asia: from the Japanese perspective Shintaro Hamanaka 1. INTRODUCTION The main analytical focus of this chapter is whether preferences of certain states regarding membership of regional frameworks will vary according to the issues at hand. Some may question why this research centres on the membership of a regional framework, which is just one of the various institutional features, others including scope, control/ﬂexibility and the level of centralization (Koremenos et al., 2001). The perspective that a particular membership is ‘required’ may be helpful in explaining institutions (Mack and Ravenhill, 1995). However, in reality, the membership and other features of institutions are determined or designed endogenously (Snidal, 1994). Moreover, in actual international relations, while the rough idea on the ﬁeld of cooperation exists from the outset, it is the participants who decide the relevant scope of cooperation. This chapter argues that there may be a relationship between membership and leadership, in particular with regard to them being diﬀerent sides of the same coin. When membership of a regional framework is determined, who is likely to hold the leading position in it becomes clearer. What is important is the leading position, not the leadership behaviour (Young, 1991).1 Given the fact that membership and the leading position are closely linked, the overarching question of this chapter can be summarized as follows: when a regional framework with a particular membership is likely to enable a certain country to hold the leading position, what...
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