Chapter 9: Leadership in Global Governance: Japan and China in the G8 and the United Nations
Hugo Dobson 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter explores the roles played by the annual summit of the Group of Eight countries (G8) and the United Nations (UN) in the provision of global governance, in addition to the leadership exhibited (or not) by Japan and China. On the one hand, Japan is a founding member of the G8 whereas China has only recently participated as an informal dialogue partner, although a more permanent inclusion in this forum is now regularly touted. On the other hand, China occupies a permanent seat on the UN Security Council (UNSC) but Japan is a latecomer to the UN and frustrated in its attempts to join the UNSC. The chapter outlines the pattern of behaviour exhibited by Japan in the G8, evaluates whether this amounts to leadership and assesses whether this is any indication of the leadership role it might take if it were to join the UNSC, and vice versa in the case of China. In the ﬁeld of international relations, leadership is a slippery term. Styles of leadership identiﬁed include a task-oriented confrontational approach versus the interpersonal approach, in addition to transactional/strategic leadership – ‘the pursuit of mutual self-interest over the long-term’ (Walker, 2006: 138) – and transformational/moral leadership, which places emphasis on morality in the means and ends of international politics. Important variables inﬂuencing leadership might include domestic constraints, nationalism, diﬀerent perceptions of time, diﬀering levels of operation (unilateral, bilateral and multilateral) and the utilization of formal, informal and proxy channels of...
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