Third intermezzo Regional eco-industrial development: views from different stakeholders
Third intermezzo Regional ecoindustrial development: views from different stakeholders Anthony Chiu Eco-industrial developmental (EID) schemes have been thought of as a means to operationalize industrial ecology, and early studies using this approach focused mostly on resource flows. At times EID took the form of industrial symbiosis (IS), describing activities undertaken to alter resource flows, and at other times it was applied within some spatial constraint, such as an eco-industrial park (EIP), eco-industrial estate (EIE), or simply in a virtual network. Such exercises helped to identify resource relocation and matching, shared utility, or shared service alternatives. The end objectives included optimizing economic and ecological benefits within and around a particular operating system. Physical science issues dominated the industrial ecology research in the early stages, with much emphasis on using materials flow analysis (MFA), Input–Output Analysis (IOA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) as the measuring tools. My exposure to the industrial ecology field started in 1998 with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) project in the Philippines called PRIME. PRIME stands for PRivate enterprises Involvement in the Management of Environment. I became a member of the Technical Working Group (TWG) on Industrial Ecology (IE) Module, and in 2001 I coordinated the UNEP-UNDP-EU conference workshop on EID which involved 90 EID players in the Asia Pacific region from China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Pakistan and India. In the succeeding years, I had the good fortune to get involved with and interact in several EID projects or to provide training...
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