Challenging the Path Dependence of Dominant Energy Systems
Edited by William M. Lafferty and Audun Ruud
William M. Laﬀerty and Audun Ruud Energy is a crucial factor in the sustainable development of societies. It is energy that drives economies, and it is the balance of economies in relation to nature that ultimately determines the degree of sustainability. The present work deals with only one aspect of energy – renewable electricity; in one region – Europe. The book constitutes the ﬁnal report from the SUSTEN project, an initiative within the Programme for Research and Documentation for a Sustainable Society (ProSus) at the Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, Norway. ProSus is a ‘Strategic University Programme’, ﬁnanced by the Research Council of Norway (RCN), with the intention of promoting strategic– applied research for more eﬀective national policies for sustainable development. The emphasis of the programme is on governance and policy for sustainable development, with an increasing focus in recent years on: national strategies for sustainable development; environmental policy integration (EPI); the promotion of renewable energy systems; and the interaction between business and government in pursuing sustainable production and consumption. The speciﬁc task of the SUSTEN project has been to analyse and assess the implementation of the so-called ‘RES-E Directive’ in eight selected European countries. The RES-E Directive is oﬃcially designated as: ‘Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market’. The Directive sets ‘indicative targets’ for all EU Member States in terms...