Lessons for Theory and Practice
New Horizons in Environmental and Energy Law series
Edited by Michael Faure and Marjan Peeters
Karen E. Makuch and Zen Makuch1 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland’s (hereinafter ‘UK’) legal and policy initiatives at the domestic level designed to address climate change and meet EU and international commitments are ubiquitous. They span the range of conventional environmental instrument categories including: command and control regulations; market-based instruments and negotiated agreements. The UK also produced a world first with a national economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme (ETS). This chapter discusses several of the climate policy initiatives that have been, are or will imminently be employed in the UK. The UK comprises the four constituent parts of England, Scotland, Wales (the grouping to which the political term Great Britain is attributed) and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom has been a centralized, unitary state for much of its history, and environmental law and policy developments within the UK tend to be similar throughout each of its constituent parts. The focal point of this work is largely on initiatives within England and Wales, the larger and arguably more politically dominant constituency. Given the ubiquity of domestic initiatives, there is a key critical point worthy of detailed scrutiny. It concerns the following question: Is there policy cohesion (i.e., joined-up thinking in policy design/implementation) in relation to climate change policy instruments? This is an issue that we have examined in this chapter in relation to five key instruments pertaining to emissions trading, the Climate Change Agreements and the Climate Change Levy. Surveys and interviews have...
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