Chapter 10: One-Hundred Percent Scanning of Port Containers: The Impact on Maritime Transport Chains
Wayne Talley 10.1 Introduction Maritime transport chains are networks over which seaborne international trade is transported. Ports are nodes in these networks. Maritime transport chains are susceptible to terrorist attacks, since disruptions in the flow of cargo over these chains can have significant negative impacts on international trade, and thus the global economy. The need for security of international shipping operations was formally recognized by the international maritime community in 1985 when the cruise vessel, the Achille Lauro, was hijacked (Bichou, 2008). As a consequence, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) produced guidelines to protect maritime transport chains from terrorist attacks. Following the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center buildings (that were owned by the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey), it became clear that US ports were at risk from terrorist attacks (Pinto et al., 2008). In response to the concern over further terrorists attacks, the US Congress passed several Acts (to be discussed below) to protect US ports from such attacks. Also, the US government has sponsored a number of voluntary and mandatory international port security programs. In addition to the US, port security programs have been developed in the EU (Pallis and Vaggelas, 2008) and Asia (Ng and Gujar, 2008). In July 2007 the US Congress passed the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act that requires 100 percent scanning of US-bound containers at their last foreign ports of call by the year 2012. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the impact of...
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