Chapter 18: A Multi-step Approach to Model the Relative Efficiency of European Ports: The Role of Regulation and Other Non-discretionary Factors
18 A multi-step approach to model the relative efficiency of European ports: the role of regulation and other nondiscretionary factors1 Angela Stefania Bergantino and Enrico Musso 18.1 Introduction The port sector plays an important role in the economic development of a country and public sector involvement, although to a varying degree in the different EU countries, is still quite significant. Economic conditions, globalization and technological innovations have increased the competitive pressures on the industry. This situation has stimulated increasing interest in the capacity of ports to respond effectively to the increasingly growing requirements of shipping lines, the hinterland, local authorities and, in general, final users. Information on port efficiency and its evolution is pivotal for the evaluation of both managerial strategies and port planning, at local and national level. This is the more so in the presence of policy changes that might influence the governance structure of ports. Especially in Europe, many countries have, in recent decades, adapted their portrelated legal framework in order to give ports more flexibility in all aspects related to management, commercial strategies and financing (De Monie, 1996; Suykens and Van de Voorde, 1998; Trujillo and Nombela, 2000; Noteboom and Winkelmans, 2001; Bergantino, 2002; Tovar et al., 2004; Castillo-Manzano et al., 2008; Musso, 2008). Researchers have, thus, focused increasing attention on the measurement of efficiency in the port industry. Although a number of different approaches have been adopted, there is a general consensus on either data envelopment analysis (DEA) or stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)-related measures....
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