Techniques and Perspectives for Multi-Level Analysis
1. 1.1 R&D function INTRODUCTION This chapter examines a first dimension along which measurement of R&D performance can be undertaken and studied, that is, the R&D function of an industrial firm. This issue deserves particular attention because assessing performance and contribution to economic value of R&D has become an important concern for R&D managers in particular in the last decades (Kerssens-van Drongelen and Bilderbeek, 1999), as a result of the evolutionary trend discussed in the introduction of this book. Despite the fact that measuring R&D performance is a very challenging task, with potential negative impacts on the creativeness of scientists and engineers (Brown and Svenson, 1988), the topic has currently received large attention in R&D and innovation management literature, and it is raising the interest of managers and practitioners as well (Pappas and Remer, 1985; Brown and Svenson, 1988; Sivathanu and Srinivasa, 1996; Werner and Souder, 1997; Hauser, 1998; Driva and Pawar, 1999; Driva et al., 2000; Poh et al., 2001; Loch and Tapper, 2002; Godener and Soderquist, 2004; Ojanen and Vuola, 2006). The growing interest in the measurement of a firm’s R&D function performance has stimulated reflections about the tools that can be effectively employed by R&D and senior managers to this end and, as a result, a huge bulk of research has flourished around the issue. The first purpose of this chapter is to provide an updated overview of this vast literature that will be useful for R&D...
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