Towards a Single Energy Market
Edited by Jean-Michel Glachant and François Lévêque
1 Christian Von Hirschhausen and Georg Zachmann INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a survey of the main structures of the electricity sector in the East European new EU Member States (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia) and candidate countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia). The chapter’s focus is on benchmarking the reform process in the region using qualitative and quantitative ranking methods. It also discusses open policy issues regarding investment adequacy, fuel mix and interregional electricity trading. We establish that while all countries have implemented some reforms, most of the objectives stated in the Acceleration Directive 2003/55/EU are yet to be achieved. Among these are the creation of competitive national markets, a functioning wholesale market and eﬃcient cross-border trade. EU electricity enlargement and the creation of a truly internal European market are far from being achieved. In May 2004 the EU integrated eight countries from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Malta and Cyprus, into what is about to become a truly pan-European Union. But whereas the political EU enlargement is proceeding smoothly, electricity enlargement turns out to be a more complex undertaking, which is far from being achieved at present. Since the mid1990s, these countries have worked hard to bring their energy sectors in conformity with the EU acquis communautaire. The objective of this chapter is to provide a balanced assessment of this process up to the present, to identify successes and the challenges still lying ahead, and to derive therefrom policy recommendations on how to foster...
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