Chapter 2: Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation Systems: Issues for Governance in a Global Context
Bjørn Asheim, Finn Valentin and Christian Zeller INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS AN INNOVATION SYSTEM? This chapter deals with IPRs in innovation systems. Even if both innovation systems and IPRs as such have been studied extensively, the specific problematic of this chapter has hardly been analysed before. This is even more surprising as the form and extent of IPR regulations potentially have big impacts on the functioning of an innovation system. According to Granstrand (2005), ‘IPRs, particularly patents, play several important roles in innovation systems – to encourage innovation and investment in innovation, and to encourage dissemination (diffusion) of information about the principles and sources of innovation throughout the economy’ (Granstrand 2005, p. 280). Thus, the extent, intensity and type of interactions between firms and universities, which represent the constituting relations of an innovation system, will obviously be affected by the way the IPRs are constructed. This is especially the case in science driven activities, such as biotech, which is the focus of this book, being the object of the majority of implemented IPR regulations. This chapter will investigate this problematic through a comparative approach, looking at how IPRs are implemented and their consequences for industry–university collaboration in the US and Europe, with a special focus on Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. While the analyses of the US and Germany and Switzerland give a general account of changes in the IPR regimes, the section on Denmark specifically looks at the consequences for industry– university coloration in biotech by the introduction of Bayh-Dole...
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