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The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology Innovation

The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology Innovation

Edited by David Castle

Intellectual property rights (IPRs), particularly patents, occupy a prominent position in innovation systems, but to what extent they support or hinder innovation is widely disputed. Through the lens of biotechnology, this book delves deeply into the main issues at the crossroads of innovation and IPRs to evaluate claims of the positive and negative impacts of IPRs on innovation.


L. Martin Cloutier and David Castle

Subjects: environment, biotechnology, innovation and technology, biotechnology, law - academic, biotechnology and pharmaceutical law, intellectual property law


L. Martin Cloutier and David Castle The contribution of innovation to a firm, region or state’s competitiveness provides a strong incentive to understand how to stimulate creative activity, to create and capture value, and strategically to protect investments made in an innovation system. Economic performance, often measured as per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP), is the most common measure that is used to compare a sector’s contribution to an economy, changes to an economy over time, or state-to-state comparisons. Although pcGDP is faulted for being an unreliable measure, it prevails because it is one of the few simple measures available. It is valued for being a somewhat comprehensive endpoint measure, in the sense that innovative, valuecreating activity has to happen before an impact on pcGDP is appreciable. Firms and governments, often feeling the sting of late-stage performance appraisals, seek measures of innovation further upstream in value chains to give them tools actively to manage innovation. The quest to measure innovation to manage it better generates problems for firms and governments. As many economies around the world make the transition from a production base to a service base, one of the hallmarks of knowledge-based economies, they encounter the challenge of evaluating the assets of firms. The market value of real estate and equipment held by firms dedicated to manufacturing was once enough; now the knowledge base of the firm is its chief asset. Measuring intangibles, an activity that almost seems like an oxymoron, has been one of the management sciences’ greatest...