Chapter 7: Increasing Internal Value from Patents: The Role of Organizational Arrangements
Marc Ingham, Cecile Ayerbe, Emmanuel Métais and Liliana Mitkova INTRODUCTION This chapter explores how organizational contexts are conducive to internally enhancing and exploiting the value of patents. Internal exploitation is adopted for patents that are part of the ‘strategic businesses’; the main objective is to keep under control both the invention and the markets. This chapter addresses the following questions: why and when are these organizational arrangements adopted at each stage of the patenting process and what are their characteristics? To investigate these questions, the literature on organizational configurations dedicated to patenting is reviewed. The methodological approach consists in a case study of Air Liquide, a large French industrial group.1 Two main characteristics of the organizational context are of paramount importance to increase the internal value drawn from the patent portfolio, the involvement of actors from different functions in the patenting process, and the use of information technology. These ‘platforms’ enable one to create a context that is conducive to knowledge sharing and creation. The literature on organizational learning and knowledge creation is then used to interpret the case presented in this chapter. BACKGROUND The flourishing literature on patents in the fields of economics, law and management rarely investigates how companies develop and use organizational arrangements to increase intra-organizational value from their portfolio of patents.2 Nevertheless, organizational contexts are of paramount importance to improve the efficiency in the management of patents 159 160 Intellectual property rights in biotechnology innovation (knowing why, where and for how long patents should be...
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