Chapter 9: Measurement of Innovation and Intellectual Property Management: Challenging Processes
L. Martin Cloutier and Susanne Sirois INTRODUCTION All measurements of economic and managerial activities are, to some extent, limited and flawed. The measurement of innovation also suffers from a number of important limitations: absence of appropriate data, lack of application of research standards, changes introduced in the regulatory environment, to name but a few (Bloch, 2005; Goedhuys, 2005; Jensen and Webster, 2004; Rogers, 1998; Sloan, 2001). This is partly due to the lack of standards and also due to difficulties associated with the object of the measurement. Studies often are conducted for specific units of analyses (activities, processes, business units, firms, interfirm relationships, markets, regions, countries) and are constrained by available data and information that can be employed to obtain the measurements sought with a variety of research methods and techniques. When a ‘control’ factor can be introduced into the analysis for some of these dimensions, the results obtained can be employed fruitfully for decision-making. The possibility of establishing benchmarks to allow comparisons across studies will always, however, remain both methodologically qualitative and quantitative challenges (Adams et al., 2006). Processes are dynamic and can evolve over time. Products tend to be more static. Products are at times considered innovative as ‘new’ and at times as ‘imitative’, when ‘improved’. Thus, the object of measurement is typically transient, can only be captured as a snapshot, and may not be representative of the current situation once time passes from the point of measurement. Nevertheless, better to understand the contribution of economic and management...
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