Chapter 41: Regulating in Global Regimes
Colin Scott 41.1 INTRODUCTION An increased emphasis on global regulation is a response to the recognition of economic, social and cultural interdependence between the world’s nations and peoples. Policy problems as diverse as reckless behaviour by financial institutions, exploitation of sweatshop labour in emerging economies, and the threat of climate change present collective action problems which cannot be resolved through the deployment of the state’s authority, capacity and legitimacy alone (Cerny 1995: 597). In common with others, I suggest it is helpful to think in terms of regulatory regimes rather than regulators, where regime is understood to constitute the range of policies, institutions and actors which shape outcomes within a policy domain (Eisner 2000; Eberlein and Grande 2005; Scott 2006). Even at domestic level few regulatory regimes operate in classic style, as regulatory power is more typically fragmented not only amongst state bodies, but also between state and non-state organisations. Given the even more fragmented quality of supranational governance structures we should not expect global regulation frequently to be characterised by the emergence of powerful public agencies to make and enforce rules. Rather regimes with global reach frequently involve a high degree of fragmentation in which many actors are involved in the key activities which together may constitute a more or less effective regime. The fragmented character of many global regimes involves both a variety of organisations in exercising the various requirements of a viable regulatory regime and a diffuse range of instruments or mechanisms through which the norms of...
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