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Chapter 9: Entrepreneurship Policy Transfer: The Case of the SME Policy Framework in Albania
Mirela Xheneti INTRODUCTION Policy transfer, convergence or transnational communication are amongst the terms that have been used to describe that part of the policy process which draws on knowledge accumulated in other countries or contexts. Globalization pressures have also contributed to this by improving the communication of ideas and knowledge. There is consensus in the literature that policy makers choose policy transfer for internal reasons related to the economical, political and social characteristics in their country or for external reasons related to pressures that might come from international organizations and their powerful discourses or their conditionalities (Dolowitz and Marsh 2000; Hoberg 2001; Stone 1999). Entrepreneurship and small business policy has also been shaped by processes of knowledge transfer. The exchange of ideas and knowledge in this field has been influenced by the widely established assumptions that the small business sector is one of the driving factors for economic development. Dominating governmental discourses about entrepreneurship prescribe it as the answer to more jobs and more competitive economies, which many countries, whether developed or developing, are aiming to achieve. Academic research has also acknowledged the contribution of entrepreneurship and the conditions under which it can flourish in different contexts. This has led to a large number of policies and initiatives being developed and the transfer of those defined as ‘best practice’ from one context to another. Entrepreneurship and small business development all over the world is promoted by the same functionalist arguments of economic development and job generation. Perren and Jennings (2005)...
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