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Chapter 11: Fostering Women’s Entrepreneurship in Ukraine
Nina Isakova INTRODUCTION The International Labour Office (ILO) stated in its annual report ‘Global Employment Trends for Women’ that the economic crisis was expected to increase the number of unemployed women by as much as 22 million, and that the global job crisis was expected to worsen sharply with the deepening of the recession in 2009 (ILO 2009). However, the entrepreneurial potential of women could be used as a source of economic growth and therefore as a solution to social problems such as unemployment. Women do business in a wide variety of countries and increasingly contribute to economic growth – in particular in low- and middle-income economies, but a systematic and significant gender gap, which is more characteristic of opportunity-driven rather than necessity-driven entrepreneurs, has been identified, as we know from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor research project performed in 41 countries (Allen et al. 2008). Encouraging entrepreneurship among women seems to be a challenge worldwide, and this is equally true for countries which are still in transition from a planned to market economy. In Ukraine the participation of female entrepreneurs remains low in relation to that of male entrepreneurs, it is also low compared to the ratio of women in the population. More progress could probably be made if an appropriate policy was in place. Fostering women’s entrepreneurship, it is argued, depends on formal and informal institutions related to gender and entrepreneurship. The main topic of this chapter will be discussed from these two points of view: a gender perspective and...
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