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Chapter 28: Business–Public Research Collaborations, Entrepreneurship and Market Orientation: Impact on Innovativeness in Regional Clusters
Andreas Eisingerich and Tobias Kretschmer The potential of a regional cluster to create jobs and wealth, and to sustain the region’s economic well-being is seen as particularly important by business leaders and policymakers. Economists and geographers have long argued that firms accumulate significant benefits from co-location, and a significant body of scholarship studies the social and economic processes driving agglomeration. Researchers examining determinants and outcomes of successful clusters of co-located organizations consider (1) the embeddedness of economic action (Piore and Sabel, 1984; Storper, 1997); (2) the sharing and creation of knowledge (Maskell and Lorenzen, 2004; Powell et al., 1996; Tallman et al., 2004); and (3) agglomeration effects (Henderson, 1974; Marshall, 1920; Mills, 1967). While there is extensive literature on the perceived success of exemplary clusters (see, e.g., Bresnahan et al., 2001; Rosenberg, 2002; Saxenian, 1994), a clear understanding of the unique factors sustaining the innovativeness of clusters across geographic regions and industrial sectors is still lacking. Owen-Smith and Powell (2004) highlight the important role of universities in spreading new knowledge across proximate actors. While most agree on the importance of new knowledge, little about the potential of research institutions to act as key determinants of a cluster’s success is known. In this study, this gap in the current literature is addressed through the exploration of the various elements of business–public research collaborations that can sustain cluster innovativeness and performance over time. Entrepreneurship, whether conceptualized as the creation of new organizations (Dobrev and Barnett, 2005), development and commercialization of new...
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